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Mouse Estradiol

800px-estradiol

The Calbiotech Mouse/Rat Estradiol (E2) ELISA Kit is intended for the quantitative determination of Estradiol (E2) concentration in Mouse/Rat serum and plasma.

Research Significance

Estradiol E2 is the most potent natural Estrogen, produced mainly by the ovary, placenta, and in smaller amounts by the adrenal cortex, and the male testes. Estradiol is secreted into the blood stream where 98% bound to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Estrogenic activity is effected via estradiol-receptor complexes which trigger the appropriate response at the follicles, uterus, breast, vagina, urethra, hypothalamus, pituitary and to a lesser extent the liver and skin. In non-pregnant women with normal menstrual cycles, estradiol secretion follows a cyclic, biphasic pattern with the highest concentration found immediately prior to ovulation. During pregnancy, maternal serum Estradiol levels increase considerably, to well above the pre-ovulatory peak levels and high levels are sustained throughout pregnancy. Serum Estradiol measurements are a valuable index in evaluating a variety of menstrual dysfunctions such as precocious or delayed puberty in girls and primary and secondary amenorrhea and menopause. Estradiol levels have been reported to be increased in patients with feminizing syndromes, gynaecomastia and testicular tumors. In cases of infertility, serum Estradiol measurements are useful for monitoring induction of ovulation following treatment.

Principle of the Test

The Calbiotech Mouse/Rat E2 ELISA kit is based on the principle of competitive binding between E2 in the test specimen and E2 enzyme conjugate for a constant amount of anti-Estradiol polyclonal antibody. In the incubation, anti-E2 antibody coated wells are incubated with E2 standards, controls, samples, and E2 enzyme conjugate at room temperature for 120 minutes with. During the incubation, a fixed amount of HRP-labeled E2 competes with the endogenous E2 in the standard, sample, or quality control serum for a fixed number of binding sites of the specific E2 antibody. E2 peroxidase conjugate immunologically bound to the well progressively decreases as the concentration of E2 in the specimen increases. Unbound E2 peroxidase conjugate is then removed and the wells are washed. Next, a solution of TMB Reagent is added and incubated at room temperature for 15 minutes, resulting in the development of blue color. The color development is stopped with the addition of stop solution, and the absorbance is measured spectrophotometrically at 450 nm. A standard curve is obtained by plotting the concentration of the standard versus the absorbance.

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Publications Citing the Calbiotech Mouse/Rat Estradiol ELISA

In summary, the Calbiotech Kit was the only available assay tested that demonstrated good E2 parallelism to the assay standard curve and accuracy vs a gold standard method (i.e. GC/MSMS). Also of note, the Calbiotech assay is sensitive and requires minimal sample volume. Therefore, based on these findings the Calbiotech E2 assay has been implemented for use in mouse serum samples within the Ligand Core.

Daniel J. Haisenleder et. al. (See #1 below)
  1. Estimation of Estradiol in Mouse Serum Samples: Evaluation of Commercial Estradiol Immunoassays

  2. Mice lacking Mrp1 have reduced testicular steroid hormone levels and alterations in steroid biosynthetic enzymes

  3. Estrogen-Regulated Prohibitin Is Required for Mouse Uterine Development and Adult Function

  4. Reduced Ovarian Glyoxalase-I Activity by Dietary Glycotoxins and Androgen Excess: A Causative Link to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

  5. Sex, Collagen Expression, and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strength in Rats

 

Cotinine ELISA

cotinineCotinine is a metabolite of nicotine and is the primary biomarker for the determination of tobacco exposure. The Calbiotech Cotinine ELISA kit is widely used in different areas of research with many references in research publications.  

Background on Cotinine

Exposure to tobacco smoke can be detected by measuring nicotine and its metabolites using a Cotinine test. Nicotine has a short half life and is not used as a marker for tobacco smoke exposure. Cotinine, due to its longer half life, has been used in research as a reliable marker for smoking status and smoking cessation studies. The Calbiotech Cotinine Direct ELISA Kit is designed for the detection of Cotinine in serum and urine. It can also be adapted for other fluids.

Principle of the Test

The Calbiotech Cotinine ELISA is intended for Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. The assay is a solid phase competitive ELISA. The samples and Cotinine enzyme conjugate are added to the wells coated with anti-Cotinine antibody. Cotinine in the samples competes with a Cotinine enzyme (HRP) conjugate for binding sites. Unbound Cotinine and Cotinine enzyme conjugate is washed off by washing step. Upon the addition of the substrate, the intensity of color is inversely proportional to the concentration of Cotinine in the samples obtained with the Cotinine blood test. A standard curve is prepared relating color intensity to the concentration of the Cotinine.

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Publications Citing the Calbiotech Cotinine ELISA

  1. Use of cotinine urinalysis to verify self-reported tobacco use among male psychiatric out-patients

  2. Chronic nicotine exposure exacerbates acute renal ischemic injury

  3. Impact of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Innate Immunity: A Caenorhabditis elegans Model

  4. A comparative study of reliability of self report of tobacco use among patients with bipolar and somatoform disorders

  5. Racial Differences in Paraoxonase-1 (PON1): A Factor in the Health of Southerners?

  6. Perfluorinated compounds are related to breast cancer risk in greenlandic inuit: A case control study

  7. Maternal smoking and the retinoid pathway in the developing lung

  8. Nicotine Promotes Tumor Growth and Metastasis in Mouse Models of Lung Cancer

  9. Novel role of Egr-1 in nicotine-related neointimal formation

  10. Urinary Levoglucosan as a Biomarker of Wood Smoke Exposure: Observations in a Mouse Model and in Children

  11. Intramuscular Lipid Metabolism in the Insulin Resistance of Smoking